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August 2016
Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and National Institutes of Health R01 Research Awards: Is There Evidence of a Double Bind for Women of Color?
Academic Medicine, Donna K. Ginther, PhD; Shulamit Kahn, PhD; and Walter T. Schaffer, PhD

In a series of studies, Ginther et al. examined the effects of race/ethnicity on the scientific workforce in general and on the biomedical workforce in particular, looking separately at PhDs and MDs who apply for R01 research awards from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). In this study, the authors examined the effect of gender and gender combined with race/ethnicity on the probability of receiving an R01 Type 1 research award.

July 2016
Increasing Diversity in the Biomedical Research Workforce: Actions for Improving Evidence

This report by the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities, the Coalition of Urban Serving Universities, and the Association of American Medical Colleges examines steps colleges and universities can take to increase the diversity of the biomedical research workforce. The report also recommends that colleges and universities use holistic review -- in which applicants are considered individually without relying on cutoff scores or formulas of grades and test scores -- in doctoral admissions in science and technology fields.

July 2016
Career Coaches as a Source of Vicarious Learning for Racial and Ethnic Minority PhD Students in the Biomedical Sciences: A Qualitative Study
, PLOS One, Simon N. Williams, Bhoomi K. Thakore, Richard McGee

Many recent mentoring initiatives have sought to help improve the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions across the biomedical sciences. However, the intractable nature of the problem of underrepresentation suggests that many young scientists may require supplemental career development beyond what many mentors are able to offer. As an adjunct to traditional scientific mentoring, Williams et al. created a novel academic career “coaching” intervention for PhD students in the biomedical sciences.

June 2016
Building the Mental Health Workforce Capacity Needed to Treat Adults With Serious Mental Illnesses
, Health Affairs,Mark Olfson

This paper discusses the widespread shortages of mental health professionals in the United States, especially for the care of adults with serious mental illnesses. Such shortages are aggravated by maldistribution of mental health professionals and attractive practice opportunities treating adults with less severe conditions.

June 2016
Some Advice for Physicians and Other Clinicians Treating Minorities, Women, and Other Patients at Risk of Receiving Health Care Disparities
, Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, Augustus A. White, III, MD, PhD, and Beauregard Stubblefield-Tave

Studies of inequalities in health care have documented 13 groups of patients who receive disparate care. Disparities are partly due to socioeconomic factors, but nonsocioeconomic factors also play a large contributory role. This article reviews nonsocioeconomic factors, including unconscious bias, stereotyping, racism, gender bias, and limited English proficiency.The authors discuss the clinician’s role in addressing these factors and reducing their impact on the quality of health care.

May/June 2016
A Nursing Workforce Diversity Project: Strategies for Recruitment, Retention, Graduation, and NCLEX-RN Success
, Nursing Education Perspectives, Teri A. Murray, David C. Pole, Erica M. Ciarlo, and Shearon Holmes

The numbers of minorities enrolled in nursing education programs are insufficient to meet the healthcare workforce diversity needs of the future. This article describes two strategies used to produce a more diverse RN workforce by increasing recruitment and retention efforts and supporting students entering nursing programs through successful matriculation and graduation.

April 2016
The Complexities of Physician Supply and Demand: Projections from 2014 to 2025 (2016 Update)
, Association of American Medical Colleges

AAMC released this 2016 update examining five scenarios commonly expected to affect physician supply (e.g., early or delayed retirement of physicians) and six scenarios expected to affect the demand for physician services over the next decade (e.g., changing demographics, greater adoption of managed care models, or greater integration of advanced practice registered nurses and physician assistants).

March 2016
A Framework for Educating Health Professionals to Address the Social Determinants of Health
, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Educating health professionals in and with communities negatively affected by the social determinants of health can generate awareness among those professionals about the potential root causes of ill health, contributing to more effective strategies for improving health and healthcare for underserved individuals, communities, and populations. This is the context in which the expert committee of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine developed a high-level framework for educating health professionals to address social determinants of health.

March 2016
Improving Diversity in the Health Professions
, North Carolina Medical Journal, Peggy Valentine, EdD, FASAHP; Jacqueline Wynn, MPH; Darius McLean, MSOT

The health professional workforce of North Carolina does not reflect the rich diversity of the state’s population, and the underrepresentation of various demographic groups in health care may affect the health outcomes of the state’s citizens. There are opportunities for educational institutions to partner with others, share successful strategies, and implement measures to promote diversity among health professionals.

January 2016
Race-Conscious Professionalism and African American Representation in Academic Medicine
, Academic Medicine, Brian W. Powers; Augustus A. White, MD, PhD; Nancy E. Oriol, MD; and Sachin H. Jain, MD, MBA

Efforts to ameliorate African American underrepresentation in academic medicine have traditionally focused on modifying structural and extrinsic barriers through undergraduate and graduate outreach, diversity and inclusion initiatives at medical schools, and faculty development programs. This article uses a paradigm of "race-conscious professionalism" to understand the dual obligation encountered by many minority physicians not only to pursue excellence in their field but also to leverage their professional stature to improve the well-being of their communities.

September 2015
Congressional Black Caucus Health Braintrust: 2015 Kelly Report on Health Disparities

The Congressional Black Caucus Health Braintrust released the 2015 Kelly Report on Health Disparities in America to examine the health status of African Americans and offer legislative and policy recommendations to reduce health disparities in communities of color. The Kelly Report includes a five-point plan that focuses on access, workforce diversity, innovation & research, community engagement and federal action on healthcare. The Sullivan Alliance compiled workforce diversity data for the report.

September 2015
National Institutes of Health Addresses the Science of Diversity

This Proceedings of the National Academies of Science article focuses on diversity within the biomedical research workforce and divergence from demographics in the United States. Drs. Hannah Valantine and Francis Collins draw attention to the importance of diverse approaches and teams to scientific advancement, but reference complex barriers and a need for evidence-based initiatives to maximize intellectual capital nationwide.

September 2015
Transforming Dental Hygiene Education and the Profession for the 21st Century

The American Dental Hygienists’ Association produced a white paper on the future of dental hygiene education and practice, and highlights dental hygienists’ expanding role in oral health service delivery. Expanded scope of practice, new CODA standards on dental therapy curricula, and interprofessional education are discussed within the paper.

August 2015
Altering the Course: Black Males in Medicine

The Association of American Medical Colleges released this report on the decline of African American males applying to and entering medical school over the past 30 years. This publication includes viewpoints of African American pre-medical students, physicians, researchers, and Sullivan Alliance Chairman and CEO Louis W. Sullivan, MD among other leaders. This report highlights barriers and facilitators for medical school success.

August 2015
Southeastern Health Equity Council (SHEC) Cultural Competency Resource Guide and White Paper

The Southeastern Health Equity Council (SHEC) released its Cultural Competency Resource Guide in August 2015. This guide is comprised of resources, trainers, institutions and publications about cultural and linguistic competency that can be shared with the 10 Regional Health Equity Councils (RHECs), stakeholders and partners to help address cultural barriers with health care systems. Additionally, this guide includes important terms for members of the SHEC to become familiar with as the Council develops a common language around cultural competency.

July 2015
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Oral Health Strategic Framework, 2014–2017
, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

The HHS Oral Health Strategic Framework 2014–2017 (the Framework) reflects the collective deliberations and next steps proposed by HHS and other federal partners to realize the department’s oral health vision and eliminate oral health disparities. The Framework builds upon and outlines a strategic alignment of HHS operating and staff divisions’ resources, programs, and leadership commitments to improve oral health with activities of other federal partners.

April 2015
Diversity in the Academic Health Center: Progress and Opportunities

In The Transformation of Academic Health Centers: Meeting the Challenges of Healthcare’s Changing Landscape, Sonja Haywood, Ron Berkman, Jeanne C. Sinkford, Louis Sullivan, Jeffrey L. Susman, Jay Gershen

Despite decades of efforts, the United States has an enduring shortage of racial and ethnic minorities in the health professions—the result of segregation, discrimination, and unequal opportunities. Sullivan Alliance Chairman & CEO Louis Sullivan, MD, and Board Directors Jeanne Sinkford, DDS, PhD and Jay Gershen, MD, PhD, co-authored this chapter on the daunting diversity gap in our nation’s health care workforce.

October 2014
A Vision for Using Digital Health Technologies to Empower Consumers and Transform the U.S. Healthcare System
, Commonwealth Fund, Sarah Klein, Martha Hostetter, and Douglass McCarthy

Unlike other sectors of the economy, the healthcare industry has yet to realize the potential of digital technologies. These tools, which allow for the rapid exchange of text, images, and date have transformed the retail and travel industries by allowing companies to discover customers’ unique needs and preferenes and leverage that information to deliver products and services in new and more convenient ways.

October 2014
Early Results of Massachusetts Healthcare Reform on Racial, Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Cardiovascular Care
, Circulation, M.A. Albert, J.Z. Ayanian, T.S, Sibaugh, A Lovett, F Resnic, A. Jacobs and S-LT Normand

Insured adults receive invasive cardiovascular procedures more frequently than uninsured adults. Researchers examined the impact of healthcare reform in Massachusetts on use of coronary revascularization procedures and in-hospitals and one-year mortality by ethnicity, education and sex. Reducing insurance receipt of coronary revascularization procedures has not yet eliminated preexisting and educational disparities in access to these procedures.

September 2014
Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health: A Look at How Six Minority Serving National Organizations Are Working to Decrease Disparities
, Society for Public Health Education

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) initiated Race and Ethnic Approaches to Community to Health (REACH) to address the goal of eliminating health disparities. Six National Organizations that Serve Minority Communities (MNOs) were funded to design and implement health equity projects working towards closing the health disparity gap for minorities. The REACH MNOs focused on reducing disparities in one or more of the following areas: breast and cervical cancer screening and management, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, tobacco and infant mortality.

September 2014
It’s An Emergency! Too May Ohioans Go to Emergency Room for Oral Health Care Needs
, Dental Access Now

A report finds that more than 84,000 Ohioans who were uninsured or publicly insured went to the emergency room for dental problems in 2011. This study includes county-level data showing emergency room visits for dental problems. According to the Ohio Department of Health, ER treatment of dental problems costs $188.5 million. ER visits with primary dental diagnosis cost more than $58 million. Adding the mid-level providers such as dental therapists to the dental team would help families get the dental care they need, when they need it, so they do not have to go to an ER.

September 2014
Holistic Admissions in the Health Professions: Findings from a National Survey
Urban Universities for Health

Growing health workforce shortages and transformative changes to the healthcare system have combined to create new challenges to universities. Universities are increasingly concerned with preparing graduates who posses the qualities, skills and experiences to be successful. Many universities have added holistic review to the admissions process, with the goal of admitting a diverse body of students who will not only excel academically but also have the qualities needed for success in the current workforce.

September 2014
The State of Health Equity Research
, Association of American Medical Colleges

Despite significant financial support for health equity research, health disparities persist. The Association of American Medical Colleges and Academy Health partnered to review health disparities research funded between 2007 and 2011. More than 2,000 abstracts were analyzed to describe the funders and funding recipients of health disparities focused research. The analysis identified gaps in the populations and outcomes studied and examined five-year trends in the evolution of disparities research from documenting inequities, to investigating causal mechanisms, to identifying solutions.

September 2014
The Role of Historically Black Colleges and Universities as Pathway Providers: Institutional Pathways to the STEM PhD Among Black Students
, American Institutes for Research, Rachel Upton and Courtney Tanenbaum.

This AIR issue brief highlights characteristics of African Americans STEM PhDs recipients and their pathway to degree completion. The authors also examine if institutional or financial support affects STEM participation given the changing demographics of underrepresented minorities nationwide.

August 2014
Analyzing Physician Workforce Racial and Ethnic Composition Associations

This two-part Analysis in Brief series from the Association of American Medical Colleges highlights physician workforce diversity in the U.S. according to specialty and geographic distribution.

Analyzing Physician Workforce Racial and Ethnic Composition Associations: Physician Specialties
Analyzing Physician Workforce Racial and Ethnic Composition Associations: Geographic Distribution

July 2014
Part of the Solution: Pre-Baccalaureate Healthcare Workers in a Time of Health System Change

The Brookings Institution conducted research on healthcare workers with less than a Bachelor’s degree and their impact on the health care system. This report examines the career outlook for pre-baccalaureate workers and analyzes diversity across the ten largest occupations in this category.

May 2014
National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2013
, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) produces annual reports on health care disparities and health care quality. The National Healthcare Disparities Report summarizes trends in quality and access measures for key populations including racial, ethnic and income groups.

April 2014
A Stronger Nation through Higher Education
, Lumina Foundation.

Abstract (excerpted from the introduction): When and if the history of Lumina Foundation’s goal to increase higher education attainment is written, 2014 may be a watershed. This is the first year the goal of 60 percent of Americans obtaining a high-quality postsecondary credential by 2025 (#Goal2025) is within reach.

This is the 5th year of publication of A Stronger Nation though Higher Education, Lumina’s signature report on progress toward Goal 2025. In this report, they measure progress in the higher education attainment rate and the percentage of the nation’s adult, working-age population holding high-quality postsecondary credentials.

March 2014
Reducing Health Care Disparities: Where Are We Now?
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Marsha Gold, ScD.

Abstract (excerpted from introduction): “For many years, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation has been committed to finding and promoting ways to reduce racial and ethnic disparities. This issue brief gives an overview of how health care disparities have evolved in recent years. The paper focuses on health care disparities, while recognizing that these are obviously also intertwined with broader efforts to reduce health disparities.”

March 2014
An Analysis of the Medical School Pipeline: A High School Aspirant to Applicant and Enrollment View, Analysis
in Brief, Volume 14, Number 13, Emory Morrison, Ph.D., and David A. Cort, Ph.D.

Abstract (excerpted from introduction): “The medical school pipeline has been used as a metaphor for describing the path to medical education and, related leaking out of the pipeline has been used to discuss disparities on who exits the pathway across groups. In this Analysis in Brief, the composition of the pipeline during the sophomore year in high school is compared to the composition of medical school applicants and marticulants. This analysis highlights the extent to which socio-economic status and race may matter in this leaking out process, if the pipeline is defined by an expressed aspiration for a career as a physician.”

March 2014
Minnesota’s Dental Therapist Workforce 2013
, The Minnesota Department of Health.

Abstract (excerpted from introduction): “In 2009, Minnesota became the first state in the Unites States to authorize the licensing of dental therapists and certification of advanced dental therapists. These new professions practice as a part of a dental team to provide educational, clinical and therapeutic services, including non-complicated restorations and extractions. The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH), in collaboration with the Minnesota Board of Dentistry, collects information on the demographics, education, and location and future plans of dental therapists licensed in Minnesota. This fact sheet is based on a survey of dental therapists licensed as of August 2013.”

February 2014
Minority-Serving Institutions: Doing More with Less
, Institute for Higher Education Policy, Alisa Cunningham, Eunkyoung Park, and Jennifer Engle.

This policy brief covers current fiscal challenges at minority-serving institutions (MSIs) and their role in supporting students from disadvantaged backgrounds. The Lumina MSI-Models of Success initiative is the overarching program for this publication series, which is focused on the development of best practices and policy impacting MSIs.

February 2014
Early Impacts of Dental Therapists in Minnesota,
Minnesota Department of Health, Minnesota Board of Dentistry, Report to the Minnesota Legislature.

“This report evaluates the early impact of dental therapists, as required in Minnesota Laws. Fifteen clinics employing dental therapists participated in the evaluation. Preliminary findings suggest that dental therapists may reduce emergency room (ER) use by expanding capacity of dental clinics serving vulnerable populations. Clinics report additional impacts of dental therapists including personnel costs saving, increased dental team productivity and patient satisfaction.”

February 2014
Expanding the Dental Team
, Pew Charitable Trusts

Abstract (excerpted from the report summary): “Expanding the Dental Team looks at two private dental practices that employ dental therapists to increase access to dental care for underserved populations. It is the first report examining early cost impacts of a dental therapist on a private practice in the United States and how this type of provider functions in that environment on a daily basis-the patients they see, the procedures they conduct, the supervision they receive, and how they coordinate with the rest of the dental team.”

February 2014
Some Advice for Minorities and Women on the Receiving End of Health Care Disparities
, Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, Augustus A. White, III

The pervasive, distressing realities of health-care disparities were well documented in the milestone publication by the Institute of Medicine in 2003. This work reviewed numerous articles published in peer-reviewed journals showing disparities in health care for a number of groups in our society, including African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and women. These disparities are caused by conscious and subconscious bias, stereotyping, racism, and sexism in our society.

October 31, 2013
Recommended Standards for Dental Therapy Education Programs in the United States: Advisory Panel Report and Recommendations
, Community Catalyst.

Abstract (excerpted from report introduction): “Since publication in 2000 of the U.S. Surgeon General’s report on oral health in the United States, a variety of workforce innovations have been proposed to improve access to oral health care, including the addition of dental therapists to the oral health team. Utilization of dental therapists has been shown to improve access to dental care for underserved patients and communities, and a review of literature documenting care and clinical outcomes worldwide indicates that the care dental therapists provide is competent, safe and effective. Dental therapists are being considered by a number of states and tribal nations as a strategy to address the growing crisis of untreated dental disease experienced by low-income and vulnerable children and adults.”

October 24, 2013
Building an All-In Nation: A View from the American Public
, Center for American Progress and PolicyLink (in partnership with the Rockefeller Foundation), Ruy Teixeira, John Halpin, Dr. Matt A. Barreto and Dr. Adrian D. Pantoja.

Abstract (excerpted from Introduction): “[In early 2013], the Center for American Progress and PolicyLink released All-In Nation: An America that Works for All—a comprehensive book analyzing these changing demographics and exploring policies to ensure that a more diverse workforce is prepared for the jobs of the future and that all people are in a position to contribute to and benefit from economic growth.... As part of this research project and as a complement to the book, CAP and PolicyLink joined with the Rockefeller Foundation and Latino Decisions to assess how Americans view issues of rising diversity and policy proposals to better integrate these communities into the mainstream of American society and its economy.... This study is one of the largest of its kind. It is based on nearly 3,000 total interviews with Americans, including large oversamples of the African American, Latino, and Asian American communities.”

September 2013
Health Reform In Massachusetts Increased Adult Dental Care Use, Particularly Among The Poor
, Health Affairs,Kamyar Nasseh and Marko Vujicic
States frequently expand or limit dental benefits for adults covered by Medicaid. As part of statewide health reform in 2006, Massachusetts expanded dental benefits to all adults ages 19–64 whose annual income was at or below 100 percent of the federal poverty level. Nasseh and Vujicic examined the impact of this reform and found that it led to an increase in dental care use among the Massachusetts adult population, driven by gains among poor adults.

Fall 2013
Rural Community–Academic Partnership Model for Community Engagement and Partnered Research
, Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action, Volume 7, Issue 3, Fall 2013, pp. 281-290 (Article), The Johns Hopkins University Press, Claudia R. Baquet, Jeanne L. Bromwell, Margruetta B. Hall, and Jacob F. Frego.

Abstract (excerpted): A rural community–academic partnership was developed in 1997 between the Eastern Shore Area Health Education Center (ESAHEC) and the University of Maryland School of Medicine’s (UMSOM) Office of Policy and Planning (OPP). The model supports partnered research, bidirectional interactions, and community and health professional education. The primary aim was to develop a sustainable community–academic partnership that addressed health and social issues on the rural Eastern Shore.... The partnership led to community empowerment, increased willingness to participate in clinical trials and biospecimen donation, leveraged grant funds, partnered research, and policies to support health and social interventions. This partnership model has significant benefits and demonstrates its relevance for addressing complex rural health issues.

June 26, 2013
Enumeration and Characterization of the Public Health Nurse Workforce: Findings of the 2012 Public Health Nurse Workforce Surveys
, University of Michigan Center of Excellence in Public Health Workforce Studies, M.L. Boulton and A.J. Beck

[Excerpt from Robert Wood Johnson Foundation] Public health nurses comprise the largest occupational group of public health workers and play a central role in the delivery of essential public health services to communities. Despite the importance of the work of nurses in assuring population health, little is known about the size, composition, and educational/training background of the public health nurse workforce.

The University of Michigan Center of Excellence in Public Health Workforce Studies conducted a national survey of public health nurses at the organizational-level and individual-level to collect information on workforce size, educational background, job titles, program areas, job functions, recruitment, retention and retirement intention of public health nurses working in state and local health departments.

October 2012
Are Race, Ethnicity, and Medical School Affiliation Associated With NIH R01 Type 1 Award Probability for Physician Investigators?
, Academic Medicine, Ginther, Donna K. PhD; Haak, Laurel L. PhD; Schaffer, Walter T. PhD; Kington, Raynard MD, PhD

Abstract (excerpt): “Compared with applications from whites, applications from blacks have a lower probability of being awarded R01 Type 1 funding, regardless of the investigator’s degree. However, funding probability is increased for applications with MD investigators and for those from medical schools.”

October 3, 2012
Health Workforce Information Center (HWIC) State-by-State Health Workforce Guide
, Health Workforce Information Center

This HWIC guide is a compilation of state-by-state workforce statistics and information sources that can inform research, grant-writing, and state policy analysis.

October 1, 2012
Where Do We Go From Here? Philanthropic Support for Black Men and Boys
, Foundation Center and Open Society Foundations, Seema Shah and Grace Sato.

Abstract (excerpt): “This report...examines U.S. foundation giving explicitly in support of black males by issue area, type of support, and geographic area served. the analyses explore patterns of giving by larger U.S. foundations over the past eight years, with a focus on giving from 2008 to 2010... This report [aims to spark] dialogue within philanthropy about the current state of foundation support for black males and ways to leverage future investments.”

August 2012
The Diversity of North Carolina’s Health Workforce
, North Carolina Health Professions Data System, Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Victoria McGee and Erin Fraher

Recognizing the vital importance of a diverse health workforce the University of California Chapel Hill conducted descriptive analysis of its non-federal non-resident in training active physician workforce in the period of 1994-2009. Ethnic/racial minorities in North Carolina are underrepresented in the health workforce (17% vs. 33% in population). African Americans are underrepresented in all professions except Licensed Practical Nurses (LPN). Hispanic/Latinos are underrepresented in all professions. Potential reasons for the noticed slow change include: limited loan repayment; low matriculation and high attrition of URMs from health professions education programs; limited knowledge about health careers; disparities in K-12 preparation; lack of mentors; and lack of career laddering opportunities.

August 16, 2012
The Role of Historically Black Colleges and Universities in Training the Health Care Workforce
, American Journal of Public Health, Allan Noonan, MD, MPH, Ian Lindong, MD, MPH, and Vijai N. Jaitley, MPH, MCHES (Published online ahead of print August 16, 2012: e1-e3. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300726)

This article, by The Sullivan Alliance’s Maryland Alliance chairman Allan Noonan, MD, analyzes the role of HBCUs in training health professionals, as well as what support HBCUs need to help the United States achieve health equity.

April 10, 2012
A Review of the Global Literature on Dental Therapists
, W. K. Kellogg Foundation.

Abstract (excerpted from introduction): “The goal of this report is to provide a literature-based review of the history and practice of the dental team internationally. The monograph reviews the literature, by country for which documentation of the use of dental therapists could be identified. Individual sections cover the United States, New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand. Other countries are in sections by region: Africa, Caribbean, and Pacific Islands. Finally, the literature of remaining countries is in a separate section Other Nations.”

December 2011
Forming State Collaborations to Diversify the Nation’s Health Workforce: The Experience of the Sullivan Alliance to Transform the Health Professions
. Journal of Genetic Counseling 20(6):547-55, Louis W. Sullivan, M.D. and Ilana S. Mittman, Ph.D., M.S.

This paper reviews new findings on issues impacting health workforce diversity in the nation, presents a case study of a national best practice to diversify the health workforce and illuminates actions that can be taken by the genetic counseling profession.

October 2011
Examining Whether Dental Therapists Constitute a Disruptive Innovation in U.S. Dentistry
, American Journal of Public Health, October 2011; 101(10): 1831–1835, Burton L. Edelstein, DDS, MPH

Abstract (excerpted): Dental therapists—mid-level dental providers who are roughly analogous to nurse practitioners in medicine—might constitute a disruptive innovation within U.S. dentistry. Proponents tend to claim that dental therapists will provide more equitable access to dental care; opponents tend to view them from a perspective that focuses on retaining the current attributes of the dental profession. Therapists display traits similar to those of disruptive innovations: their attributes are different from dentists’, they may not initially be valued by current dental patients, they may appeal to current dental underutilizers, and they may transform the dental delivery system. Whether dental therapists constitute a disruptive innovation will only be determined retrospectively.

October 2011
Letter to the Editor: How Can We Ease the Medical Isolation of Minority Students?
Academic Medicine, 86(10):1191, Louis W. Sullivan, M.D. and Ilana S. Mittman, Ph.D., M.S.

July 13, 2011
Improving Access to Oral Health Care for Vulnerable and Underserved Populations, Consensus Report

[Report Brief excerpt] Good health requires good oral health, yet millions of Americans lack access to basic oral health care. Access is hampered by a variety of social, cultural, economic, structural, and geographic factors, but fortunately, opportunities exist in both the public and private sectors to reduce barriers to care.

In 2009, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) and the California HealthCare Foundation asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the National Research Council (NRC) to convene a committee of experts to address access to oral health care in America for vulnerable and undeserved populations. The committee was charged to assess the current oral health care system, to develop a vision to improve oral health care for vulnerable and underserved populations, and to recommend strategies to achieve the vision.

April 8, 2011
Advancing Oral Health in America, Consensus Report

[Report Brief excerpt] The U.S. surgeon general issued a landmark report in 2000, Oral Health in America, which described the poor oral health of our nation as a “silent epidemic.” While there have been notable improvements in the oral health of Americans, oral diseases remain prevalent across the country, posing a major challenge for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). These dire circumstances could be improved if HHS strengthened its commitment to oral health, made it a national priority, and partnered with other stakeholders.

In 2009, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to assess the current oral health care system and recommend strategic actions for HHS agencies. The IOM convened a committee to explore how HHS can enhance its role as a leader in improving the oral health and oral health care of the nation.

January 8, 2011
The Need for Greater Ethnic and Racial Diversity in Orthopedic Medicine
, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 469(7)1809-12, Louis W. Sullivan, M.D. and Ilana S. Mittman, Ph.D., M.S.

While African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans constitute more than one-third of the US population, they make up less than 10% of physicians, dentists, and nurses and less than 4% of orthopaedists in the United States. This article addresses why it is important to increase the representation of women and ethnic and racial minorities in orthopaedics and how to grow their representation.

October/November 2010
An Opportunity to Remedy a Health System in Crisis: Increasing and Diversifying America’s Health Professions
, Focus magazine, October/November 2010, Louis W. Sullivan, M.D. and Ilana S. Mittman, Ph.D., M.S.

October 22, 2010
Alliances Between Academic Health Centers and Historically Black Colleges and Universities Address Disparities
, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation – Program Results Report (Grant ID: 61861).

February 2010
Celebrating the 100th anniversary of a seminal report in medical education: 27 articles about Abraham Flexner and his legacy

February 2010
The State of Diversity in the Health Professions – A Century after Flexner
, Academic Medicine, Vol. 85 (2):246-253, Louis W. Sullivan, M.D. and Ilana S. Mittman, Ph.D., M.S.

This article presents how the Flexner Report shaped medical education and created a culture of medical research leading to narrow performance standards that fail to properly reward teaching activities, patient care, and health promotion. Efforts to achieve diversity in medical education should not end at graduation but should be extended to provide minorities opportunities to excel and to lead.

September 2007
Improving Diversity Among Health Professionals in the United States: a Brief History
, Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2007;15 S1-S3, Louis W. Sullivan, M.D.

September 20, 2004
Missing Persons: Minorities in the Health Professions (Commission Report)
, The Sullivan Commission on Diversity in the Healthcare Workforce

As stated in the Sullivan Commission’s report, this in-depth analysis “provides the nation with a blueprint for achieving diversity in the health professions.”

February 5, 2004
In the Nation’s Compelling Interest: Ensuring Diversity in the Healthcare Workforce (Consensus Report)
, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine.

This IOM report analyzes and recommends “Institutional and Policy-Level Strategies for Increasing the Diversity of the U.S. Healthcare Workforce.”

May 1996
The Role of Black and Hispanic Physicians in Providing Health Care for Underserved Populations
, The New England Journal of Medicine, Miriam Komaromy, MD, Kevin Grumbach, MD, Michael Drake, MD, Karen Vranizan, MA, Nicole Lurie, MD, MSPH, Dennis Keane, MPH, and Andrew Bindman, MD

Patients who are members of minority groups may be more likely than others to consult physicians of the same race or ethnic group, but little is known about the relation between patients' race or ethnic group and the supply of physicians or the likelihood that minority-group physicians will care for poor or black and Hispanic patients.

June 1983
Blacks and the Health Professions in the 80’s: A National Crisis and a Time for Action

Ruth S. Hanft, Linda E. Fishman, and Wendy J. Evans for the Association of Minority Health Professions Schools.

Commissioned by the Association of Minority Health Professions Schools (AMHPS), this concise report clearly showed the shortage of minorities in the key medical professions. This AMHPS study was presented to DHHS Secretary Margaret Heckler and its findings informed her decision to form the Secretarial Taskforce that created the “Report of the Secretary’s Taskforce on Black & Minority Health” (also referred to as “The Heckler Report”) in August 1985.

Medical Education in the United States and Canada (referred to as The Flexner Report)
, Abraham Flexner, Carnegie Foundation Bulletin No. 4, 1910.

Known as the Flexner Report, this seminal work shaped the development of U.S. medical education from the moment it was published in 1910. The report’s recommendations adversely impacted minority access to educations in the health fields.